by Andrew Wang
Sweat beats down my neck in the early fall heat of Rome as I stare at my phone figuring out which direction google maps wants me to go. As I walk with a hefty backpack, my suitcase rattles against the black cobblestone road as I drag it along barely holding on. Eventually, I make it to my apparent destination, as I stop in front of a typical Roman facade with multiple arches and fancy columns and windows. To the left, there is a restaurant preparing outdoor tables, and not far off on the right, a butcher shop preparing to close shop. Right in the middle sits two large black metal doors filling in the whole arch, and on the left side of the door sits a small panel that reads UW Rome Center in tiny texts above one of the buzzers. I’ve finally arrived at Palazzo Pio, home to the UW Rome Center.
Theater of Pompey:
The Palazzo Pio is built atop the ancient Theater of Pompey, which was completed in 55 BC by Pompeo Magno. The theater is a combination of an amphitheater and a theater constructed out of a stone and concrete foundation and cladded in marble. It was the first permanent stone theater in Rome, as theaters and amphitheaters were built out of wood as temporary structures. Pompeo was allowed to construct the first permanent structure by building the theater outside the city walls and building a temple in the center of the cavea (curved seating area) dedicating it to Venus Victrix. The design of the theater is influenced by earlier Greek theaters with a few differences. These include the theater being built on its own foundations and being enclosed on all sides. The Theater of Pompey became the model for nearly all future theaters in Rome.
Fun Fact: Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Theater of Pompey in 44 BC when the theater was the temporary meeting place for the Roman Senate.
After the fall of Rome in 476 AD, the theater remained in use but was abandoned after the Gothic War in 554 AD. During the Early Middle Ages, the marble cladding was repurposed for other buildings and the flooding from the Tiber further deteriorated the theater. Later in the Middle Ages, Piazza di Campo de’ Fiori was built and the remaining parts of the theater were quarried for stone for more recent buildings still standing today in modern Rome.
In present times, the remains of the Theater of Pompey are buried under the buildings of modern Rome. The graphic document of Forma Urbis, which is a monumental marble plan of Rome from the Severen period, shows the partial plans of the theater. Traces of the theater can also still be seen from the streets today. Most clearly is the curved road Via di Grotta Pinta which clearly follows the cavea of the ancient theater underneath.
Palazzo Pio is built atop the ruins of the temple of Venus as seen below in figure 8. In or around 1450, Cardinal Francesco Condulmer, nephew of Pope Eugenius IV, bought a portion of the theater turned “trullum” which corresponds to the Palazzo Pio of today. The building at the time possessed the characteristics of a medieval family stronghold including a tower facing Campo de’ Fiori. The Palazzo changed ownership multiple times, one of which was the rich and famous family of Orsini. In the second half of the 17th century, architect Camillo Arcucci, was hired by the Orsini family to organize the building. Arcucci designed a three-story facade to be wrapped around the pre-existing structure. The Baroque-inspired facade, however, was never finished, ending on the edge of Campo de’ Fiori. It was during this renovation that the tower was also removed entirely and in its place a small terrace still here today.
It was not until the Pio da Carpi di Savoia family took ownership of the building that it became known as Palazzo Pio and it has stuck ever since. In the mid-1800s the Pio family sold the palazzo to a banker who then later turned it over to the current owners. Istituto Tata Giovanni. The space was used through the 1920s as a dormitory, classroom, and workshop for orphaned boys of the institute. After the society moved its activities the third and fourth floors were abandoned until the UW Rome Center took over.
During the Fascist era (1922-1943) under Mussolini’s rule, many ancient Roman monuments were excavated even if that meant destroying entire neighborhoods. The Theater of Pompey was on the list of excavations, but the area had been thoroughly integrated into the surrounding fabric. However, the plan was to raze all the buildings in the area to uncover the theater, as noted in the periodical “Capitolium,”. Fortunately, the plan was never carried out and the rich history of Palazzo Pio and the surrounding neighborhood can still be seen today.
For the Jubilee of 2000, the Palazzo’s facade was cleaned and restored and had been in its best condition since the 17th century. The color of the facade today has darkened a bit, but the newly cleaned facade can be seen in the photo in Figure 13 below.
Modern Day Renovations (UWRC):
The Palazzo Pio has gone through many renovations and is now home to a variety of offices and living spaces including the University of Washington Rome Center (UWRC) and even a couples rental room. The first UW Rome program was established in 1970 by Professor Astra Zarina. In 1983, with the support of the university, several floors of Palazzo Pio were able to be leased, and in 1985 the UWRC was officially inaugurated. Recent renovations began in 2019 with years of planning beforehand. The project was staged in three phases including updates to structural, electrical, and mechanical works, fire safety, and new lighting, flooring, and educational technology. A lot of paperwork was needed for this project as all plans needed to be approved by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage, to maintain the history and prestige of the building. Some key additions include new bathrooms, kitchenette, new seminar rooms, and opening up the terrace. The fresco in the conference room was restored depicting Juno, Aeolus, god of the winds, and the nymph Deiopea. Renovations for the third floor were completed in early 2022.
UW Rome Center Experience:
The UW Rome Center lives inside Palazzo Pio, taking up sections on the first, third, and fourth floors (the ground floor is floor zero). To reach the Rome Center, one enters through a smaller door attached to the large double doors of Palazzo Pio. Walk down a large open corridor and on the left is a spiral staircase leading up to the top floor. On the first floor, one will find an inconspicuous door with a small tag for the University of Washington. Once through the door, one is greeted by a modern hallway/waiting area with sleek white walls with modern lighting. A kitchenette is located through the door on the left, but as one continues down the hallway into the next open space, one is treated by a large fresco of Venus on the ceiling. On the right, there are bathrooms and additional classrooms. Continuing on is a larger seminar room with a large projector. Continuing further down is a smaller room that opens up facing Campo de’ Fiori, and on the left a door to the terrace.
The third-floor entrance is almost identical to the first floor with a similar layout on the inside as well. Some differences are the main office on the left once through the entrance, a computer lab, and a library. Much of the older structure can be seen on the third floor. Metal beams and extensions can be seen on the ceilings. Towards the back old remnants of the brick building can be seen with old exterior openings now used as holes for wiring. There is a fourth floor that I was not able to access, which is still undergoing renovations and will hold four faculty apartments and an intern apartment.
History of the palazzo pio. UW Rome Center. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2022, from https://www.washington.edu/rome/palazzo-pio/
Teatro di Pompeo. Iampica.com. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2022, from https://readitaliano.com/wiki/it/Pompey%27s_Theater
UWRC Archive. UW Rome Center. Poster